Lukoff & Co
Some believe that there are experiences that are at risk of being assessed such as psychotic reactions or such illness, which have a different etiology and often another (more favorable) prognosis. Prior to working on the DSM-4, psychiatrist Lukoff and more put forward arguments that an upcoming version of the manual should be able to differentiate these experiences. And mixed forms (Lukoff).
(Lukoff, ?) More pathologizing or dismissive in the DSM-3. Better in the DSM-4 (who writes about it? Rizzuto?) Lukoff and colleagues worked to introduce a "Spiritual emergency" category into the DSM-4, and partially succeeded
An early representative of such a view was the Italian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Alberto Assagioli, who, like Carl Gustav Jung, early on taught Sigmund Freud but eventually, partly because of a lack of consensus on spiritual issues, broke with him. In an interview in Psychology Today (December 1974), with a Sam Keen, Assagioli explains how his approach differs from Freud's:
"We pay more attention to the higher unconscious and to the development of the transpersonal self. Freud said, "I am interested only in the basement of the human being." Psychosynthesis is interested in the whole building. We try to build an elevator which will allow a person access to every level of his personality. After all, a building with only a basement is very limited. We want to open up the terrace where you can sun-bathe or look at the stars. Our concern is the synthesis of all areas of the personality. That means psychosynthesis is holistic, global and inclusive"