Chryssides, Frisk, Hammer…
Chryssides, G. D (2007)
Important distinguish between New Age, alternative spirituality, NRM and NSMs. What belongs to the field of New Age studies and what lies outside, s5
Chryssides for a review of the confusion of concepts. Even Hammer.
Advanced spiritual beings who are now free from the cycle of reincarnation and who continue to guide humans on Earth from their celestial abodes, p6
Steven Sutcliffe once said, "'New Age' is a construct – that is to say, a term created by outsiders to bring together artificially a number of disparate ideas that may not be linked by their exponents". Chryssides makes a parallel to Hinduism, as a 19th-century Western concept to bring together a variety of very different spiritual phenomena that focused on very different deities, p13
The connection to the hippie era. Then part of a left-wing project, a mostånd against the lasting, but it may not be so true anymore, p12
Option is a sneaky prefix, article.. What's it called?… Alternatively to what? Common Christianity? But there are many other options as well, p15
Emic and etic. The former is what followers themselves use, etic is what viewers say and how define. Epic use… s, 12
That the new age is changing is perhaps not so strange, if it is a spirituality that is explicitly about "applicants". And that it's not coherent. Many movements contain great tensions and differences, feminism for example, perhaps even greater differences, p16
New Age has been accused of lacking common worldview, common ideology, common organization, p17
New age is of a nebulös nature, p21
The author's suggestion: It has an optimistic view of the individual himself, to the point of seeing the individual as God, God inside. A questioning of common authorities. It is a counterforce, counder-cultural zeitgeist, p22.
That there is something, or perhaps someone, that exists beyond the empirical. God, Ascended Master, or whatever it is.
It's something or someone you can be in contact with. Channeled or led.
Expressing itself with rituals. The New Age is known for having many. Prayers, mediations, tarotings.
"Finally, spirituality is about finding meaning in one's life: receiving guidance for life, obtaining answers to qustions about why we are here, what the purpose of life is, and what may happen after we die", p14
Healthy, L. (2007)
Quantitative Studies of New Age
Ref to survey in Holland 1998, by Dick Houtman and Peter Mascini. Christianity, the New Age and non-religious orientation were measured. It was concluded that the decline of Christianity was not due to increasing rationality, but that the increased interest in the New Age and non-religiosity was rather due to individualization, p111
MORI, which conducts market research in the UK (equivalent to Statistics Sweden, or Temo?), conducted a survey in January 2006 that showed that 28% of Britons believe in astrology, 43% believe in telepathy, 56% in notice and ESP, 18% to predict in the future/tarot, and 23% believe in reincarnation, p112. (www.mori.com/polls/2006/s060117.shtml,enl Frisk)
Two major studies in Europe. World Values Survey. For example, how people believe in reincarnation changed: 1982: 17.4%, 1990: 19.8%, to 1999: 22.3%. (www.worldvaluessurvey.org,according to Frisk). In 2000n, 44.2% of Europeans believed in telepathy, 24.4% believed in reincarnation, and 19.1% said they stuck with a lucky charm (EVS2000)
Frisk mentions the problem that if you don't know you're measuring the same thing, you can't compare surveys and results, p114
Who's in the new age and who's not? And to what extent. And partly, but deep in some respects. What should be a minimum criterion?,p114
A functional perspective. The new age is healing. But Frisk mentions respondents who are doing healing but don't look at themselves or what they do as spiritual, p115
Frisk suggests that one should perhaps start from scratch, with statistical means, researching one's way to suitable divisions of what today fits more or less under the new age, p119
Farias, M.; Granqvist, P (2007)
The Psychology of the New Age
Ten years after the publication of two monographs on the New Age, one historical and one sociological, Hanegraff and Heelas respectively, the authors present that it is now time for a compilation of empirical psychological research on the New Age.
Art contains social psychological, personality psychology, and developmental psychological research, p123
No longitudinal studies, p124
Suggests that it is a combination of biology (cognitive and personality factors, constitution, cognitive style) along with early experiences of parents etc that is behind the new age interest, p124
The authors suggest that it "are basic underlying processes of cognition and emotion, related to a particular pattern of personality traits and attachment organization, which may make some individiual more likely to report such unusual experiences and participate in the New Age", p124
A survey (Farias, 2004) examined collectivist and individualistic ideals of Catholics, atheists and New Age enthusiasts. It turned out that New Age followers emphasized individualism as highly as atheists, and then distinguished themselves from the Catholics in the survey. The former emphasized such things as independence and hedonism. New Age adherents also emphasized a universalism, which can be interpreted as tolerance, a concern for humanity and nature, p125
The survey was also asked to describe themselves in twenty words, in response to "Who am I?". The answers were then encoded according to abstract and concrete