Bäärnhielm, S., Scarpinati Rossi, M., Pattyi, L. (2007). Culture, context and psychiatric diagnosis: [the right binder?] Manual for interview according to the cultural formulation of the DSM-IV. Transcultural center. Elanders Berlings Malmö
"There are criticisms of the DSM-IV system. A critical point of view is that it makes no sense to use a Western diagnostic system outside the West or for refugees and minority groups. Kleinman (1977) coined the term "category fallacy" which refers to the problem of using psychiatric diagnoses for symptoms outside the cultural sphere in which diagnoses were created. (p16)
The authors (referring to the DSM-IV) write about facts from the U.S. and U.K. "that show that clinicians may have a tendency to overdiagnose schizophrenia, at the expense of bipolar disorder, in certain minority groups (p. 385)."
"The text on major depressive disorder describes that communication of depression is influenced by cultural factors. In some cultural contexts, depression is mainly conveyed in bodily terms and not as guilt and shame — e.g., as "nerves," headaches, weakness, fatigue, "imbalance," or heart problems (p. 353-354)." (p16)
"The chapter on personality disorders emphasizes the importance of not confusing these with integration problems (p. 687-688). Pathology must not be mixed with different habits, tradition, religion or political values. The importance of taking into account the ethnic, cultural and social background of the individual is stressed." (p16)